It should be possible to restore to the word "philosophy" its original meaning: philosophy —the "love of wisdom" — is the science of all the fundamental principles; this science operates with intuition, which "perceives," and not with reason alone, which "concludes." Subjectively speaking, the essence of philosophy is certitude; for the moderns, on the contrary, the essence of philosophy is doubt: philosophy is supposed to reason without any premise (voraussetzungsloses Denken), as if this condition were not itself a preconceived idea; this is the classical contradiction of all relativism. Everything is doubted except for doubt.